Countermeasure Toolbox

Deer-Vehicle Crash Information Clearninghouse
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What is the Toolbox?

In July 2001 the Deer-Vehicle Crash Information Clearinghouse (DVCIC) was created by the Wisconsin Department of Transportation. During the last two years an extensive review of deer-vehicle crash (DVC) countermeasure documentation has been completed. This toolbox contains what is believed to be the most detailed summary and evaluation of DVC countermeasure information. Three levels of discussion are provided that focus on the current state-of-the knowledge related to 16 potential DVC countermeasures. Specific findings and conclusions for each countermeasure are discussed in Chapter 2 and summarized in the Executive Summary. Each of the summaries in Chapter 2 can be acquired from the DVCIC webpage. More broad-based conclusions and recommendations are provided in Chapter 3. It was generally concluded that it is difficult to define the magnitude of the DVC problem in the United States, and that the collection of roadside deer carcass locations may provide a more accurate measure of the problem. The 16 countermeasures are grouped into five categories based on their apparent use and how much they had been studied. It was not considered appropriate, given the current limited state-of-the-knowledge and lack of definitive studies, to group the countermeasures by their apparent DVC reduction capabilities. The majority of the potential countermeasures are used in the field, but the safety impacts of few have been evaluated rigorously. Only studies of properly installed/maintained exclusionary fencing and wildlife crossing installations have consistently shown DVC reductions. The DVC reduction capabilities of the other 14 countermeasures appear to still be in question. Different types of evaluations are recommended for each of the five categories defined. It is also recommended that a national or regional DVC database be created and that the value of a similar database of roadside carcass locations be evaluated. It is proposed that all DVC countermeasure installations and evaluations be completed by a team of transportation safety and ecology professionals. A national or regional DVC or large ungulate-vehicle crash safety research center should also be created to fund/promote appropriately designed research in the DVC area.


Complete Report
Executive Summary, Chapters 1, 2, 3 (PDF)

Report Sections
Executive Summary (PDF)
Chapter 1 – Introduction (PDF)
Chapter 2 – Countermeasure Sumaries (PDF)
Chapter 3 – Conclusions and Recommendations (PDF)

Chapter 2 Individual Countermeasure Summaries
In-Vehicle Technologies (PDF)
Deer Whistles (PDF)
Roadway Lighting (PDF)
Speed Limit Reduction (PDF)
Deicing Salt Alternatives (PDF)
Deer-Flagging Models (PDF)
Intercept Feeding (PDF)
Deer Crossing Signs and Technologies (PDF)
Roadside Reflectors and Mirrors (PDF)
Repellents (PDF)
Hunting or Herd Reduction (PDF)
Public Information and Education (PDF)
Roadside Vegetation Management (PDF)
Exclusionary Fencing (PDF)
Roadway Maintenance, Design, and Planning Policies (PDF)
Wildlife Crossings (PDF)